Research Objective: Restoration of the Native (Olympia) Oyster

Oly heaven

Did you know that the oyster grown in BC and most of the rest of the world is an import from Japan? Brought in after overfishing and pollution destroyed populations of our Native oyster? Or that 85 % of all the native oyster reefs in the world have vanished? Or that we have been working on the Native (Olympia) oyster since 2008 and now are starting a more active program?  If not read on….

The Native or Olympia oyster (Ostrea lurida) is an integral a part of the Pacific Northwest as are Pacific salmon, yet because of its near annihilation a century ago, it has mostly slipped beneath the threshold of public awareness. Olympia oysters are BC’s only native oyster and were listed under SARA as a species of special concern in 2003 and are Blue listed by the Province of BC. Until the late 1800s, Olympia oysters were highly abundant supporting sustenance and commercial fisheries and occupying thousands of acres of productive, diverse habitat.

Olys

Beginning with the California gold rush and then extending north up the coast; over-exploitation, habitat alteration and pollution led to significant declines along the entire coast and near-extirpation in some areas.  While remnant populations can still be found today, this species occupies a fraction of its former range in vastly lower numbers and is now functionally extinct through many of the estuaries where it once thrived.

Since the early 1900s, impacts on the Olympia oyster have been dramatically reduced with the collapse and closure of the fisheries and reductions in pollution and habitat alteration, such as improved industrial practices to reduce sedimentation rates in estuaries.  Despite this, their populations have not rebounded.  This has led to impressive restoration efforts in the United States; despite a serious lack of basic research and knowledge on the species.  Restoration efforts are driven by several motivations including the desire to restore important ecosystem services provided by healthy estuaries (e.g. water filtration, shoreline stabilization and creation of important biogenic structure); a desire to restore a native species at risk of extirpation; and the potential of farming a native species of oyster for commercial harvest.

 In 2008, the CSR starting working with  the Puget Sound Restoration Fund led by our great friend Betsy Peabody and the Nature Conservancy to look for the last “ecologically functional” populations of this species in Nootka Sound.  Joined by Fisheries and Oceans Canada staff and aided by local oyster farmer Bob Devault we have made two trips to Nootka Sound to study what maybe some of the last intact reefs.

Morning run

Local Oyster Farmer, host, guide and all round gentleman, Bob Devault (left) in the RV Atrevida running for a dawn tide (2008)  with research crew.

What we found on those trips was pretty amazing, intact reefs of this species, unlike anything any of our “Olympia oyster experts” had ever seen.   These are believed to the last few acres of intact reefs – the mountain gorilla of oysters as it were.

Bed

For a slideshow about this work narrated by Nature Conservancy’s Senior Marine Scientist Mike Beck follow this link.  In addition to biologists, we were joined on our first trip by oyster and food writer Rowan Jacobsen whose essay about the trip can be found here.  This essay would later become the inspiration for Rowan’s book the Living Shore.   Unfortunately, none of our research partners (or us) have had the funds to continue studying the Nootka Sound populations and we hope that the they will remain intact until we can continue  discovering what makes these reefs so special.

Office?

Puget Sound Restoration Fund Biologist Brian Allen sets up temporary office in Nootka Sound

In the interim ,we have continued to think a lot about Native Oysters and are emboldened by increased local interest in this species.  Read Jeff Nield’s great piece in the Tyee:  An Oyster to Fight For.   Other groups such as the World Fisheries Trust have started studying remnant (but stable) populations in the Victoria Gorge Waterway (Portage Inlet).  As Jeff Nield wrote:

“There is also, among fans of the Oly, a sense that the restoration of the original oyster would have symbolic weight — an acknowledgement of past errors and of a commitment to live more wisely on the landscape that sustains us.”

sampling

Shellfish Biologist Joth Davis sampling oysters in Nootka Sound

This year with the completion of the Field Station we are setting out on what we hope will be the start of long term projects on this species.   With funding from VIU and a Canadian Wildlife Federation grant through their Endangered Species Fund (Thanks so much!) and partners World Fisheries Trust, we are helping support a new Graduate Student at the CSR, Alicia Donaldson who is studying factors affecting recruitment of Olympia Oysters.

Alicia Donaldson

Alicia Donaldson on a hunt for Olympia Oysters in Union Bay, Baynes Sound

Alicia’s thesis project includes: examining the physical tolerances of Native oysters and juveniles; Evaluating settlement substrate preferences; monitoring natural settlement and recruitment in the field and survival of out-planted recruits and; Examining predation pressure on recruits and juveniles.

Published archaeological work indicates that Native oysters were present in Baynes Sound as their shells show up in First Nations shell middens.  This summer we have found them throughout the sound but cryptically and in very small numbers.

The next phase of our work (hopefully) is to to enhance monitoring, community stewardship and public and academic awareness of the Olympia oyster in Canada, in a manner that also helps identify the constraints to its recovery and contributes to biological and policy knowledge and tools required to build strategies for the species’ future survival.  At the Deep Bay Marine Field Station we want to use aquaculture derived techniques and skills to increase available habitat and use hatchery produced seed to increase effective population numbers and density at our experimental farm in Baynes Sound.  By culturing these species we can create a broodstock pool, increasing effective numbers so that they might reproduce at sufficient levels to repopulate the area.  This is a simplistic but proven technique that is paying off in other areas.

Armed with scientific collection permits we have been out looking for suitable broodstock.    We are restricted to collecting potential broodstock  from the Straight of Georgia to maintain genetic integrity and although we found Native oysters in Baynes Sound, they are very few and far between.  Fisheries and Oceans had had previously reported this species from Hotham Sound on the Sunshine coast so early one morning recently we loaded the RV Atrevida with summer students and embarked from French Creek for a dawn run across the Strait.

Crew at dawn

The day was great, the scenery was awesome and while we found lots of Pacific oysters, we had a hard time finding sufficient populations to provide much hatchery broodstock.

Rianna waits for tide to drop

Rianna Martindale, hard working Fish-Aqua student doesn’t wait for the tide to drop at the head of Hotham Sound on our oyster hunt and wades out looking for signs of mature Olys.

Ultimately after all this hunting, it was Leo Limberis at Limberis Seafoods in Ladysmith Harbour who informed Alicia about areas on his leases where Oly oysters were recruiting regularly (despite official reports).  Ironically the location was where this species was last farmed commercially in BC into the 1930’s.  Lesson?  Always be aware of the local knowledge and not just the scientists 🙂

Ostrea Lurida broodstock

Broodstock oysters from Ladysmith Harbour

So now with broodstock from three locations, Alicia is raising larvae and conducting her experiments. At the Field Station with funding assistance from the Environment Canada Habitat Stewardship program (Thanks!) we are operating a small Olympia Oyster restoration hatchery and are raising seed  from these broodstock.

Sarah in mini self contained Oly hatchery

Sarah Leduc showing off our little oyster hatchery!

Seed produced from these adults will be stocked to our farm our farm along with shell habitat to attract future next generation larvae.  Thereby using our aquaculture techniques and skills to help restore what was once an iconic species. -We’ We’ll provide updates as we go along.

What do you think of this project? Let us know we’d love to hear from you.

For more info check these resources”

Olympia Oysters from Betsy Peabody on Vimeo.

The Nature Conservancy’s slide show of our joint project

Rowan Jacobsen’s Essay on the Oly Expedition

Info about the book Living Shore

An Oyster to Fight for by Jeff Neild  (the Tyee)


McCraw, K.A. 2009.  The Olympia oyster, Ostrea lurida Carpenter 1864 along the west coast of North America. Journal of Shellfish Research 28(1): 5-10.

10 Responses to “Research Objective: Restoration of the Native (Olympia) Oyster”

  1. Anne Joyce Says:

    Good Luck to everyone who is fighting to save this wonderful species of oyster, from an oyster lover in Ontario who believes The Oly Oyster to be one of the best in the world, I hope that their habitat can be sustained, and they will be available for years to come for future generations to enjoy.
    Thank you to all those care about this oyster,
    Anne Joyce

  2. 2011 Year in review, a year of firsts « VIU Deep Bay Marine Field Station Updates Says:

    […] By August we had built a small hatchery for Native Olympia oysters as part of  our conservation based project funded by the Canadian Wildlife Foundation and the Environment Canada… […]

  3. Debuting our new compact shellfish research hatchery « VIU Deep Bay Marine Field Station Updates Says:

    […] used ambient summer water temperatures to grow seed of Native Olympia Oyster (Ostrea Lurida) for our restoration efforts.  It was small and worked wel,l but to do better we needed to be able to temper (read heat) our […]

  4. Our Olympia oyster restoration project back in business :) « VIU Deep Bay Marine Field Station Updates Says:

    […] Last year with assistance from the Canadian Wildlife Foundation (CWF) and the Habitat Stewardship Program  for Species at Risk (HSP) we began field work, monitoring Native oyster recruitment in the field and actively using our aquaculture skills to breed Native oysters in the lab with the intent of creating a broodstock pool on our research farm that might accelerate natural restoration in Baynes Sound. See previous post here […]

  5. LInks for Ocean Acidification « VIU Deep Bay Marine Field Station Updates Says:

    […] On CBC Radio Victoria this morning discussing Ocean Acidification and Shellfish.  A pretty complex topic to cover in a few minutes but one that will be affecting us all on the coast.  We’re learning about it too so here is our collection of links about the subject  and below – check out one of our Native (Olympia) oyster larvae and its semi-transparent larval shell.  As Ocean acidity increases (pH drops) it gets harder and harder for these tiny larvae to form their shells as if this species did not have it tough enough already. […]

  6. 2012 Native Oyster Hunt – a photoessay « VIU Deep Bay Marine Field Station Updates Says:

    […] Olympia oyster is one of our projects of interest.  Previous posts on this subject can be found here and […]

  7. Michael Thurber Says:

    Looking forward to seeing what has been done with the Oly’s since I left off my work with them in 2002 in Nootka Sound

  8. An almost forgotten history of Native Oysters on Vancouver Island | VIU Deep Bay Marine Field Station Updates Says:

    […] in Baynes Sound.   Previous blog articles on our Native oyster work can be found here:  1-research objective, 2-hatchery, 3-2012 update, 4- field […]

  9. Gary Holman Says:

    Are you working with any First Nations on Saanich peninsula? Potential for restoration on peninsula or southern gulf islands?

    • bkingzett Says:

      Gary,
      Sorry for delay on replying to this message, We are not working with any First Nations on the potential but would love to. There is significant potential for restoration within the region. Cheers
      Brian


Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: